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* Joubert, J. (2007): [http://www.ajol.info/index.php/actat/article/view/5493/29607 Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their theological implications], in: Acta Theologica 27/1. S. 83-103.
 
* Joubert, J. (2007): [http://www.ajol.info/index.php/actat/article/view/5493/29607 Johannine metaphors/symbols linked to the paraclete-spirit and their theological implications], in: Acta Theologica 27/1. S. 83-103.
 
: '''Abstract''': The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel definitely has functional and theological implications for the Pneumatology of John. The Johannine author uses imagery freely in expressing his Pneumatological message. He does not express his message regarding the Paraclete-Spirit merely in the form of a theological discourse, but by using the metaphors dove, water and wind. By exploring the relationship between the various Paraclete-Spirit metaphors, a larger and more coherent picture emerges, which opens the view to the interrelatedness of various theological themes. Such a metaphorical description of the Paraclete-Spirit in the Johannine Gospel has genuine potential and deserves to be explored.
 
: '''Abstract''': The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel definitely has functional and theological implications for the Pneumatology of John. The Johannine author uses imagery freely in expressing his Pneumatological message. He does not express his message regarding the Paraclete-Spirit merely in the form of a theological discourse, but by using the metaphors dove, water and wind. By exploring the relationship between the various Paraclete-Spirit metaphors, a larger and more coherent picture emerges, which opens the view to the interrelatedness of various theological themes. Such a metaphorical description of the Paraclete-Spirit in the Johannine Gospel has genuine potential and deserves to be explored.
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* King, Phil (2005): [http://www.sil.org/siljot/2005/3/46696/siljot2005-3-01.pdf Translating "Messiah," "Christ," and "Lamb of God"] , in: JOT 3/05. S. 1-27.
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: '''Abstract''': The terms translated “Messiah,” “Christ,” and “Lamb of God” in English versions of the Bible would have created significant contextual effects in the minds of the original hearers when applied to Jesus. This paper investigates the use of these terms in their original context through a semantic analysis based on logical and encyclopedic entries and then considers some implications for translation. The approach to translation is based on Relevance Theory and in particular the notion of Direct Translation.
  
 
* Lamerson, Samuel (2008): [http://atijournal.org/ATI_Vol1_No1.pdf The Openness of God and the Historical Jesus], in: American Theological Inquiry 1/2008. S. 25-37.
 
* Lamerson, Samuel (2008): [http://atijournal.org/ATI_Vol1_No1.pdf The Openness of God and the Historical Jesus], in: American Theological Inquiry 1/2008. S. 25-37.

Version vom 26. Juli 2012, 13:08 Uhr

Gottvater, Gottsohn und Heiliger Geist

Abstract: The article is best seen as a follow-up article in a series of articles about this topic that have previously appeared in The Bible Translator (1992) and in NOT (1997). The article explores the meaning of YHWH in various contexts, and what the implications of this analysis are for Bible translators. It concludes that there are only two legitimate options for representing YHWH, and it provides translators with a clear set of criteria that will help the translator to determine which one of these two representations should be used.
Abstract: The Johannine author uses metaphors and symbols to enable the primary and secondary readers to come to a better understanding of the Paraclete-Spirit. The study of particular Johannine metaphors is valuable in understanding the message and theology of John. The use of the dove, water and wind metaphors in the Johannine Gospel definitely has functional and theological implications for the Pneumatology of John. The Johannine author uses imagery freely in expressing his Pneumatological message. He does not express his message regarding the Paraclete-Spirit merely in the form of a theological discourse, but by using the metaphors dove, water and wind. By exploring the relationship between the various Paraclete-Spirit metaphors, a larger and more coherent picture emerges, which opens the view to the interrelatedness of various theological themes. Such a metaphorical description of the Paraclete-Spirit in the Johannine Gospel has genuine potential and deserves to be explored.
Abstract: The terms translated “Messiah,” “Christ,” and “Lamb of God” in English versions of the Bible would have created significant contextual effects in the minds of the original hearers when applied to Jesus. This paper investigates the use of these terms in their original context through a semantic analysis based on logical and encyclopedic entries and then considers some implications for translation. The approach to translation is based on Relevance Theory and in particular the notion of Direct Translation.
Abstract: Everyone wants to have Jesus on his side. The problem is that many begin to think “of Christ in their own image—as a martyr, or a theologian, or a mystic, or an ascetic, or an ecclesiastic. . .” Every historical Jesus scholar must be careful that he does not look into the well at his own face instead of the face of Jesus. With that caveat in mind, one wonders what Jesus would have thought of the current controversy surrounding God’s openness? The purpose of this paper is to examine two sub-questions that may help clarify the answer to the question of Jesus’ own view of the openness of God: What did Jesus think of the nature and extent of his Father’s foreknowledge? What did Jesus think and teach about his own foreknowledge? Before endeavoring to find an answer to these two questions from the Gospels, let us make some preliminary observations.
Abstract: This article considers the problem of preaching OT historical narrative from the point of view of the depiction of God’s participation in the drama. It suggests that historical narrative in general depicts a God who reveals himself infrequently, that his presence is normally veiled, and that the reader often has more information about God than the characters in the narrative. The discussion then focuses on Esther where God is resolutely veiled, even from the reader, were it not for the inter-textual references which the competent reader of OT historical narrative will discern. The article suggests that biblical wisdom literature, which discerns God’s veiled presence without respect to acts in history, can be employed to profitably preach Esther in a world where God is present, but readers experience him as veiled. The article ends with suggestions for a series of sermons on Esther.
[1. Hälfte: Über typologische Lesart]
[entgegen dem, was man dem Titel nach erwarten würde, ist dies tatsächlich eine fast rein biblische Analyse der Frage, was in der Bibel über die "Absicht" Gottes ausgesagt wird.]
Abstract: It is suggested that Jesus, who understood his Messianic calling in the light of the OT prophecies, utilized their symbolic apocalyptic language in his prophetic discourse. From this perspective Matthew 26:64 sheds important light on the meaning of Matthew 24:30b, i.e. that those who rejected him would realize, within a relatively short period, that He – the Suffering Servant – was indeed the Son of Man of Daniel 7. But Jesus also made some very definite statements in very sober language about the future, which provide an important key for our understanding of the prophetic discourse. While He enumerated a number of signs that would warn his disciples of the approach of God’s judgment on Jerusalem – together constituting “the budding fig tree” – He emphasized, on the other hand, that there will be no signs to warn them of the approach of his parousia.

Weisheit

Abstract: This study is based primarily on the presupposition that the conventional definition or description of a biblical heroine does not take into account certain ‘hidden’ women in the Old Testament who could be distinguished due to their wisdom. By using the Yoruba woman as a contextual interpretive lens, the study investigates two female characters in the Old Testament each of whom is named in only one verse of Scriptures – “the First Deborah” in Genesis 35:8 and Sheerah in 1 Chronicles 7:24. The investigation takes its point of departure from the figure of Woman Wisdom of the book of Proverbs, which commentators have characterized as a metaphor for the Israelite heroine – a consummate image of the true Israelite female icon. It is indeed remarkable that Woman Wisdom has been associated with various female figures in the Old Testament such as Ruth, Abigail, the Wise Woman of Tekoa and the Wise Woman of Abel, etc. However, this study calls for a broader definition of wisdom based on the investigation of certain women in Old Testament narratives (e.g. Deborah and Sheerah) who have received only fleeting mention and recognition but whose lives reflect a possible connection to wisdom on a deeper level. It is shown that classical (arguably masculine) ways of reading the text tend to sideline or altogether overlook certain female characters, which are regarded as marginal such as Deborah and Sheerah. However, there are narrative gaps in the units where such women are found that could be filled by a reading of the text that is sensitive to details. It is urgued that a more careful examination of the minute details in the texts could break down the metanarratives in a way that shows that they have hermeneutical significance. Therefore, attention to the narrative details unveils new dimensions of meaning and implications between the two texts (women) under investigation that have not been related in previous studies. Of significance is the fact that classical readings of the two verses that mention “the First Deborah” and Sheerah (Gen 35:8 and 1 Chron 7:24) regard them as intrusive in their respective contexts. However, a multiplex reading of each of the two verses in this study has shown that, rather than being intrusive, both have been strategically constructed to underscore the importance of the two women, and that the verses actually fit into their present pericope. The references to both Deborah and Sheerah are rooted in strong Old Testament traditions namely Bethel and Ephraimite, respectively, both of which play visible roles within the pericopes. What’s more, both verses are found within significant contexts – one in the middle of a section that closes the Jacob Cycle and introduces the Joseph Cycle, the other in the midst of a theologically driven genealogy that begins with Adam. Again, based on the multifaceted character of Woman Wisdom, in particular, as a teacher, a nourisher and a builder, it is argued that this metaphor of an Israelite heroine is embodied in both “the First Deborah” and Sheerah. Whereas Deborah was a wet nurse who must have nourished and nurtured the offspring of Rebekah, her mistress, Sheerah has been identified as the only female builder throughout Scriptures. The identification of the role of a wet nurse as a nurturer and nourisher as well as the role of a daughter as a builder with Woman Wisdom points to two silent heroines, one in the private domain and the other in the public sphere, who have remained unrecognized and uncelebrated in Old Testament scholarship. Furthermore, the roles of Deborah and Sheerah, respectively as wet nurse and builder, indicate that women participated in various spectrums of societal life especially in the Second Temple period when it is assumed that the texts reached their final forms. Not only did they perform roles that were associated with women, they equally participated in roles that were regarded as traditionally masculine. In this regard, a study of the women in the book of Chronicles offers a fresh glimpse into the roles and positions of women in the Second Temple period as well as into the Chronicler’s purpose and emphasis, in particular, regarding his concept of laer"f.yI-lk'. On a theological level, the achievements of the two women demonstrate God’s penchant for supporting the weak and the marginalized and for affirming those who are regarded as less likely to succeed. The mention of the First Deborah in the Old Testament proves that in God’s script, there are no little people. In the case of Sheerah, the point that there is a lare f" y. -I lk ' that includes outstanding female achievers indicates that, theologically speaking, there is no barrier against what women can do.
Abstract: The aim of this dissertation is to investigate the concept of ‘wisdom’ in the Old Testament Wisdom Literature. This dissertation argues that the concept of ‘wisdom’ is both the search for order and the maintenance of mystery. The coexistence of order and mystery is suggested as a coherent theme of Wisdom Literature, and the various relationships between the two themes are explained as the particular voices in Wisdom Literature. Proverbs 16, Job 28, Ecclesiastes 3, and Sirach 24 exhibit the coexistent relationship between the two themes. While Proverbs 16 reveals an order prevailing coexistence, Ecclesiastes 3 exhibits a mystery prevailing coexistence. While Job 28 shows a dialogical coexistence, Sirach 24 illustrates a mysterious integrated coexistence between order and mystery.

Gott und Mensch

Anthropologie

Abstract: This dissertation has explored the Biblical basis for a redefinition of stewardship, and has done so in the light of land ownership customs and ethos in some parts of Africa. It has employed a postcolonial hermeneutics in interpreting Genesis 1:26-28 using also a functional equivalence approach in its translation and exegesis. In chapter one the conceptual scheme is outlined, while providing a highlight of the problem, the hypothesis, the methodology and various definitional terms which feature in the discussion. In chapter two various scholarly views are examined in order to critically assess the criteria for either a humans-above-nature or humans-in-partnership-withnature mindset. The implications of such divergent views have been critically examined. In the third chapter views of African scholars were brought to bear on gerontocracy which has transcended pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial economic and political influences and has sustained an ongoing cultural practice of a “giraffe principle” of stewardship, land ownership and use. In the fourth and fifth chapter, the use of a postcolonial critical hermeneutics in interpretation is rationalised. A functional equivalence approach in translating our pericope into Ogba is used, and then re-read using a postcolonial critical hermeneutics. The imago Dei and the cultural mandate which goes with it has been re-interpreted in line with a hermeneutics that is humane and sensitive to a post-colonial context. In the sixth chapter a redefinition of stewardship has been attempted, using the fruits of our close reading, functional translation, and the cultural perceptions derived from our empirical research. In the final chapter, a conclusion has been drawn to show how this study contributes to a new appreciation of the concept of stewardship when applied to land ownership and use especially when humans are properly located in a relationship with God and with nature that is ongoing.
Abstract: For believers to have fellowship (koinwniva) with one another and corporately with God, is one of the main objectives stated for the proclamation of the gospel by the author of 1 John. This article investigates the intermediation and environment through which and in which fellowship is constituted between God and his children. From the prooemium (1:1-4) of the epistle, which is used as the basic text in this research, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, has been designated (as iJlasmov~ in 2:2; 4:10 and as paravklhto~ in 2:1) to accomplish a fundamental revelatory-salvific act to enable believers to have fellowship with God and one another. This concept of fellowship, used in a familial sense, is described from the symbolic narrative of family life where God is the “Father” (patrov"), Jesus is “his only Son” (uiJov~ aujtou` oJ monogenhv~) and believers are the “children of God” (tevkna qeou`). 1 John underlines the autonomy of the individual child of God (2:20, 27; 5:20), but qualifies this emphasis with the thematic development of the concept of fellowship (koinwniva in 1:3, 6, 7) with other believers in the familia dei. The joy of believers in this familia dei, as an outcome of this fellowship, only becomes “complete” (peplhrwmevnh) where fellowship is constituted both among God’s children and corporately with God.

Personengruppen

Abstract: On account of multiple and independent attestations in early Christian literature Jesus’ affection towards children can be taken as historical authentic. From a perspective of the social stratification of first-century Herodian Palestine, this article argues that it is possible to consider these children as part of the expendable class. Neither Mark nor its parallel texts in the other Gospels refer to parents bringing these children to Jesus. They seem to be “street urchins”. In this article the episode where Jesus defends the cause of fatherless children in the Synoptic Gospels is interpreted from the perspective of Matthew’s version of Jesus’ affection towards children. The aim is to demonstrate that Matthew situates the beginning and end of Jesus’ public ministry within the context of Jesus’ relationship to children. Jesus’ baptism by John (Mt 3:15) and Jesus’ entry into Jerusalem (Mt 21:1-17) form the two poles of his ministry in Matthew. Both episodes are described as a kind of “cleansing of the temple”. Both incidents were (in a midrash fashion) understood by Matthew as fulfilment of Scripture. The baptism scene is a Matthean allusion to Isaiah 1:13-17 and the record of the entry into Jerusalem is an explicit interpretation of Jeremiah 7:1-8.
  • Cilliers, J.F.G. / F.P. Retief / S.P.J.K. Riekert (2006): Eunuchs in the Bible, in: Acta Theologica 26/2. S. 247-258.
Abstract: In the original texts of the Bible a “eunuch” is termed saris (Hebrew, Old Testament) or eunouchos (Greek, New Testament). However, both these words could apart from meaning a castrate, also refer to an official or a commander. This study therefore examines the 38 original biblical references to saris and the two references to eunouchos in order to determine their meaning in context. In addition two concepts related to eunuchdom, namely congenital eunuchs and those who voluntarily renounce marriage (celibates), are also discussed.
Abstract: The Bible uses the term “eunuch” several times. The question arises as to the meaning of this term. In this article Biblical and extra-Biblical data are considered. It is argued that the Hebrew word, syrs, refers to a castrated man, and that, in biblical usage, it refers to a castrated man in terms of Israel’s religion (Deut. 23:1; Is. 56:3). The term is used in a different sense when it refers to a foreign person, i.e. a person in an official capacity in a king’s court (as in Gen. 37), or a military commander (as in 1 Kings 22:9; 2 Kings 8:7; 23:12; 25;19; Jer. 52:25). The reference to the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8 is also discussed, and the conclusion is drawn that syrs refers to a foreign official visiting Jerusalem to worship, and not to a castrated man.
Abstract: This study is based primarily on the presupposition that the conventional definition or description of a biblical heroine does not take into account certain ‘hidden’ women in the Old Testament who could be distinguished due to their wisdom. By using the Yoruba woman as a contextual interpretive lens, the study investigates two female characters in the Old Testament each of whom is named in only one verse of Scriptures – “the First Deborah” in Genesis 35:8 and Sheerah in 1 Chronicles 7:24. The investigation takes its point of departure from the figure of Woman Wisdom of the book of Proverbs, which commentators have characterized as a metaphor for the Israelite heroine – a consummate image of the true Israelite female icon. It is indeed remarkable that Woman Wisdom has been associated with various female figures in the Old Testament such as Ruth, Abigail, the Wise Woman of Tekoa and the Wise Woman of Abel, etc. However, this study calls for a broader definition of wisdom based on the investigation of certain women in Old Testament narratives (e.g. Deborah and Sheerah) who have received only fleeting mention and recognition but whose lives reflect a possible connection to wisdom on a deeper level. It is shown that classical (arguably masculine) ways of reading the text tend to sideline or altogether overlook certain female characters, which are regarded as marginal such as Deborah and Sheerah. However, there are narrative gaps in the units where such women are found that could be filled by a reading of the text that is sensitive to details. It is urgued that a more careful examination of the minute details in the texts could break down the metanarratives in a way that shows that they have hermeneutical significance. Therefore, attention to the narrative details unveils new dimensions of meaning and implications between the two texts (women) under investigation that have not been related in previous studies. Of significance is the fact that classical readings of the two verses that mention “the First Deborah” and Sheerah (Gen 35:8 and 1 Chron 7:24) regard them as intrusive in their respective contexts. However, a multiplex reading of each of the two verses in this study has shown that, rather than being intrusive, both have been strategically constructed to underscore the importance of the two women, and that the verses actually fit into their present pericope. The references to both Deborah and Sheerah are rooted in strong Old Testament traditions namely Bethel and Ephraimite, respectively, both of which play visible roles within the pericopes. What’s more, both verses are found within significant contexts – one in the middle of a section that closes the Jacob Cycle and introduces the Joseph Cycle, the other in the midst of a theologically driven genealogy that begins with Adam. Again, based on the multifaceted character of Woman Wisdom, in particular, as a teacher, a nourisher and a builder, it is argued that this metaphor of an Israelite heroine is embodied in both “the First Deborah” and Sheerah. Whereas Deborah was a wet nurse who must have nourished and nurtured the offspring of Rebekah, her mistress, Sheerah has been identified as the only female builder throughout Scriptures. The identification of the role of a wet nurse as a nurturer and nourisher as well as the role of a daughter as a builder with Woman Wisdom points to two silent heroines, one in the private domain and the other in the public sphere, who have remained unrecognized and uncelebrated in Old Testament scholarship. Furthermore, the roles of Deborah and Sheerah, respectively as wet nurse and builder, indicate that women participated in various spectrums of societal life especially in the Second Temple period when it is assumed that the texts reached their final forms. Not only did they perform roles that were associated with women, they equally participated in roles that were regarded as traditionally masculine. In this regard, a study of the women in the book of Chronicles offers a fresh glimpse into the roles and positions of women in the Second Temple period as well as into the Chronicler’s purpose and emphasis, in particular, regarding his concept of laer"f.yI-lk'. On a theological level, the achievements of the two women demonstrate God’s penchant for supporting the weak and the marginalized and for affirming those who are regarded as less likely to succeed. The mention of the First Deborah in the Old Testament proves that in God’s script, there are no little people. In the case of Sheerah, the point that there is a lare f" y. -I lk ' that includes outstanding female achievers indicates that, theologically speaking, there is no barrier against what women can do.

Emotionen

Abstract: The article enquires into the nature of happiness or well-being in the Old Testament Psalms. It considers first the Psalms’ use of ‘happiness’ language, then goes on to seek a broader basis for the enquiry in key concepts such as freedom and justice, making some comparisons with Greek ideas. Finally it seeks to build up a picture of the person at the centre of the Psalms, particularly as the one who speaks, chiefly from the perspectives of speech itself, the ‘soul’, and praise, in the expectation that this may provide a portrait of the fulfilled human being.
  • Schlimm, Matthew Richard (2008): From Fratricide to Forgiveness: The Ethics of Anger in Genesis.

Ethik

Abstract: This dissertation has explored the Biblical basis for a redefinition of stewardship, and has done so in the light of land ownership customs and ethos in some parts of Africa. It has employed a postcolonial hermeneutics in interpreting Genesis 1:26-28 using also a functional equivalence approach in its translation and exegesis. In chapter one the conceptual scheme is outlined, while providing a highlight of the problem, the hypothesis, the methodology and various definitional terms which feature in the discussion. In chapter two various scholarly views are examined in order to critically assess the criteria for either a humans-above-nature or humans-in-partnership-withnature mindset. The implications of such divergent views have been critically examined. In the third chapter views of African scholars were brought to bear on gerontocracy which has transcended pre-colonial, colonial and post-colonial economic and political influences and has sustained an ongoing cultural practice of a “giraffe principle” of stewardship, land ownership and use. In the fourth and fifth chapter, the use of a postcolonial critical hermeneutics in interpretation is rationalised. A functional equivalence approach in translating our pericope into Ogba is used, and then re-read using a postcolonial critical hermeneutics. The imago Dei and the cultural mandate which goes with it has been re-interpreted in line with a hermeneutics that is humane and sensitive to a post-colonial context. In the sixth chapter a redefinition of stewardship has been attempted, using the fruits of our close reading, functional translation, and the cultural perceptions derived from our empirical research. In the final chapter, a conclusion has been drawn to show how this study contributes to a new appreciation of the concept of stewardship when applied to land ownership and use especially when humans are properly located in a relationship with God and with nature that is ongoing.
  • Kleine, Michael (2004): Hilfe für Schwache im Alten Testament: Motivation und Formen der Hilfe im Kontext von Familie und Staat. Link [Dissertation]
  • Schlimm, Matthew Richard (2008): From Fratricide to Forgiveness: The Ethics of Anger in Genesis.
Abstract: Leviticus 18:22 and 20:13 are the only texts in the Old Testament that explicitly condemn homosexual acts. It is of the outmost importance to take the literary context of these texts into consideration. Both prohibitions have family laws as immediate context. Since homosexual acts drastically influence the relations in the larger family, the prohibitions of these acts were associated with the family laws. Leviticus 18 and 20 are closely connected to Leviticus 19, a chapter that emphasises the holiness of the people. The call to holiness in 19:2 concerns all facets of life including sexual relations. The prohibitions against homosexual acts finally belong to the legislation that was given by Yahweh to Moses at Sinai. Therefore Israel had to take them seriously.
Abstract: There are different views on the application of Genesis 9:5-6 in the debate on the value of life and the death penalty. In postmodern society it is considered inhumane to execute persons who committed murder. In this article different views are discussed and it is suggested that, according to Genesis 9:5, respect for life is absolute and that, although the death penalty is not explicitly mentioned, it provides an argument for upholding respect for life.
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